Phraseology is a science about phraseological units, i.e. about set-expressions with complicated semantics.
Phraseological units fulfill lacunas in lexical system of a language, which cannot fully provide the designation of cognized new sides of reality by a humanity, and in many cases they appear as the only designation of things, properties, processes, conditions, situations, etc. Its important to keep in mind that the designation itself is not only the process of indication of the denotation, but the process of cognition. Formation of phraseological units weakens the contradiction between demands of thinking and limited lexical resources of a language. In cases when a phraseological unit has a lexical synonym, they usually diverse in stylistic consideration. Phraseology is a treasury of a language. The history of a nation, originality of its culture and mode of life finds reflection in phraseological units. Phraseological units often carry a bright national character. There are many international phraseological units along with pure national phraseological units of English phraseology. English phraseological fond is a complex conglomeration of primordial and loan units with obvious predominance of primordial ones. Archaic elements were kept in some phraseological units the representatives of preceding epochs.
In formation phrases humanity plays a huge role, as majority of phraseological units are connected with humanity, with variety spheres of his work. The factor of addressee is the most important element of communication. In addition, a human tends to endow the object of outer world with human features, including inanimate ones. Ch. Bally stated: Eternal imperfection of a human mind becomes apparent in that a person always tends to spiritualize everything that surrounds him. He cannot imagine that the nature is died and soulless; his imagination always endows inanimate objects with life and soul; but its not everything: a human always gives all the objects of outer world features and pursuits, which peculiar to his personality.
V.G.Gak contributes a considerable correction to Ch.Ballys statement: As in the center of humans attention is situated he/she himself/herself, hence it appears the constant urge to describe the environment according to self manner and similiarity. According language anthropomorphism its usually meant the allotment by human characteristics the objects and nature phenomena, celestial bodies, animals and mythological creatures.
Phraseological units are high-informational units of a language; they cannot be observed as jewelry or overindulgences. Such an interpretation of phraseological units can be met in some works but nowadays they are considered to be outdated. Phraseological units are one of the language universals, as there are not languages without them. English phraseology is very rich and it has a centuries-old history.
Phraseology is an extraordinarily complicated phenomenon, studying of which demands its method of investigation, and usage of data of other sciences lexicology, grammar, stylistics, phonetics, language history, history, philosophy, logic, and country-specific studies. Linguists opinions on many problems of phraseology discord and its naturally. Nevertheless, an important task of linguists who work in the sphere of phraseology is joining of efforts and finding points of contacts of interests as the theory of phraseology and the practice of teaching foreign languages.
Phraseology is connected with history, literature and linguistics and country specific studies, but first of all it is connected with linguistic disciplines: lexicology, semantics, grammar, etymology, phonetics, and stylistics, the history of a language, linguistics of a text and general linguistics. Phraseological units consist of words, and words in their turns are the main objects of study of lexicology. Lexicology data gives the possibility to determine the nature of components of phraseological units and different degrees wordness of those components. The theory of lexical meaning developed in semantics promotes revelation of semantic specificity of phraseological units and separation of various types of the meaning in the sphere of phraseology. The word in the composition of phraseological units loses its morphological features not always, and morphology helps to ascertain what was lost and what was retained. Various turns of speech are reckoned among phraseological units including units with the structure of word combinations and sentences. Syntactic data is very important for revealing of grammatic specification of these turns of speech: their grammatical structure and functions. Its words nature to have a specified phonetic character in the composition of phraseological unit, but in the process of development it can change as well. Stylistic potential of phraseological units, especially idioms is very considerable. Specific weight of connotative aspect is fight in their meanings. Phraseological stylistics which studies stylistic possibilities of phraseological units bases on the experience of lexical stylistics, particularly, in investigation of some stylistic methods. Data of the history of a language and etymology are important when making an etymological analysis of phraseological units. The customary and nonce analysis of a speech actualization of phraseological units is based on the theory of linguistics of the text. In working out the systematic- structural approach to phraseology the linguist uses the section of general linguistics: the system and structure of a language and language nomination. The object of the phraseology is so complicated and specified that its study give data which enrich pointed disciplines.
In Turkmen science phraseological investigations were stimulated by fundamental works of P. Azimov which determined the directions of the further development of the given discipline.
Thought of the academician of P.Azimov about phraseology got further development in the monograph of K.Babayev (1962) which was the first serious work dedicated to particular scrutiny of issues about Turkmen phraseology concerning different problems. K.Babayev suggests the classification of idioms in the sphere of their first usage, scrutinizes the syntactic function of idioms in speech, scrutinizes homonymous and synonymous terms in idioms, notes their stylistic peculiarities in the context, etc.
In 1976the first Turkmen phraseological dictionary ‘Türkmen diliniň frazeologik sözlügi’ the meanings of phraseological units are illustrated by the examples of fictions. Valuable material for investigation of structural-semantic peculiarities of Turkmen phraseological units is kept in this dictionary.
When talking about English and Turkmen comparative phraseology, the dissertation of A.Almammedov (1982) is of great importance, besides the names of O. Nazarov and S. Shammayeva must be mentioned. His work is the first experience of comparative analysis of English and Turkmen phraseologies. On the basis of complex investigation of the phraseological composition of verbal phraseological units, and the structural-grammatical nature of verbal phraseological units of Turkmen and English languages, the author craves for revealing some general and special features characterizing phraseological systems of each compared language.
An attempt was made to investigate the phraseological units from the point of view of the semantic relations in a bilingual situation as well and namely in the English-turkmen situation.
The presence of phraseological units in the vocabulary of any language motivates many linguists to a thorough research. The problems of phraseology and idioms can be regarded both from the point of view of one language and also in a bilingual situation. The phraseological units within one language, though insufficiently, are still quite widely investigated in linguistics. As for the study of the phraseological units in a bilingual situation, this question is not enough examined. There exist certain investigations for such pairs of languages as Turkmen-Russian, Turkmen-German and others. At the same time there are very few works treating the comparative study of English and Turkmen phraseology. This part is dedicated to the investigation of the English and Turkmen phraseological units.
A comparative study of the phraseology of these two languages first of all presents a socio-linguistic interest. Two languages with two different structures belonging to different groups of languages are compared: a Germanic and Turkish one. Moreover, it is very important for these two languages to be contrasted in a system. Thus, the basic method used for the given research is the translation method, as a variety of the comparative method. In the present part an attempt is done to study the semantic relations of the phraseological units in English, Turkmen situation from the point of view of their translation from one language into another.
Phraseological units are entered to speech only in the context.
The main concepts of contextual realization of phraseological units are the following:
1. Contact combinability is a parataxis of semantically realized phraseological units to definite words or groups of words. Those words or a group of words can be left or right actualizator of phraseological units and sometimes both of them;
2. Distant combinability is a position in which semantically realized phraseological units and its actualizator are divided by a word or a word combination. The position where phraseological unit and its actualizator are divided with punctuation marks is the special type of the distant combinability.
3. Correlation is a contact or distant position where semantically realized phraseological units are actualized depending on a message about a situation.
4. Conjunction is a joining character of bond between particular phraseological units and variable sentences. i.e. conjunction of sentences, supplementing, developing earlier uttered idea, lighting up it from the new point.
Phraseological context is a actualizator isolated on the basis of combinability, correlation or conjunction relatively semantically realized phraseological units in the speech.
Phraseological context can be of several types:
Inside phrasal phraseological context is a actualizator of phraseological units expressed with a word or a group of words in the composition of simple or complex sentence.
They had finished their dinner and were drinking coffee. Phillip, throwing economy to the winds, smoked a three-penny cigar.
Olar günartanlygyny iýip kofe içmäge oturdylar. Tygşytlylygy ýatdan çykaryp, Filip arzan çilimi çekmäge durdy.
Billy won a pony in the contest last year, but lightning never strikes twice in the same place.
Geçen ýyl Billi ýaryşda poni ýeňdi, ýöne bu ýyl onuň ýaly şowlulyga garaşmak akmakly bolar.
“You have taken my confidence by storm,” he continued: “and now it is much at your service.”
-Siz meniň ynamymy ýel ýaly bolup gazandyňyz, -diýip, ol dowam etdi, - indi bolsa siz meni diňlemeli bolarsyňyz.
Phrasal phraseological context is the actualizator of a phraseological units expressed with simple or a complex sentence.
And yet the worst of it was, there was usually a grain of truth in these wild statements. No smoke without fire!
Iň erbet ýerem, onuň bolgusyz sözlerinde bir dänejik hakykat bardy. Tüssesiz ot bolup bilmez!
I’m perfectly strong of course. Sound in wind and limb.
Hawa, men şu wagt özümi örän gowy duýýaryn. Men bedeni tarapdanam, ruhy tarapdanam iňňän sagdyn.
“Catherine!.. Mr.Preverel has offered you an engagement! It’s an ill wind that blows nobody good…” “Oh, uncle, please!.. he’s engaged me to please you. He can’t think very much of me. I was so bad today.”
-Ketrin!.. Jenap Pewerel saňa söz aýtdy! Hemme zada gowulyga bolýar..
-Daýy, gerek däl!.. Jenap Pewerel maňa diňe seniň üçin söz aýtdy. Ol men hakda üýtgeşik gowy pikirde bolup bilmez. Men bu gün özümi gowulykda görkezmedim.
Upper phrasal phraseological context is a actualizator of phraseological unit expressed by two or more sentences.
Upper phrasal phraseological context is a composite syntactic whole; it consists of sentences united in semantic and syntactic relationship. Phrasal context often doesnt give a enough information for realization in speech.
Im getting married to a French girl Break it gently to the old man, wont you? Hell probably go up in smoke.
men fransuz gyzyna öýlenmekçi… kakama bu habary seresabrak ýetir, bolýarmy? Onuň dälliremegi mümkin.
In general, it is important to study phraseological units, because phraseological units and idioms are an integral part of any language and enrich the language. On the other hand, every student of a foreign language must be able to correctly understand these stable phrases, correctly translate them and use them in their speech. This is due to the fact that phraseological units of all genres of literature can sometimes consist of both whole phrases and stable phrases. Without knowing the phraseological units, it is impossible to give a clear assessment of the word, to understand the anecdote, and sometimes the meaning of a religious sentence.
lecturer Magtymguly Turkmen State University
 Stepanowa, Helbig, 1978, sahypa 17.
 Ch.Bally, 1961. Page 221.
 Gak, 1967, page 274.
 Азимов П., 1959, 1969.
 K.Altaýew, G.Açylowa, S.Güjikow, A.Sahatow “Türkmen diliniň frazeologik sözlügi”, Ylym neşirýaty, Aşgabat – 1976.
 Шаммаева, Сопоставление исследования фразеологических едениц в туркменском и английском языках.
 W.S.Maugham, “Of Human Bondage”, chapter 60.
 Charlotte Bronte, “Jane Eyre”, chapter XXXII.
 Agatha Christie, ‘The Murder of Roger Ackroyd’, chapter II.
 A.J.Cronin, ‘Adventures in Two Worlds’, chapter 12.
 P.H.Johnson, “Catherine Carter”, part I, chapter II.
 Agatha Christie, ‘4.50 from Paddington’, chapter 12.